A Cancer-Therapy Timeline

FIGURE-chemo-timeline-v26-03-op

I recently finished two excellent books (The Biology of Cancer and The Death of Cancer) that really helped me start to understand the “big picture” of cancer research (in the lab AND the clinic). These books inspired us to piece together a timeline on the history of cancer therapy which ended up being a bit larger than we expected. Click on the image above for a PDF of our Cancer Therapy Poster (3′ x 1′). Below you can find a summary of all the abbreviations and references used for this project.

 

ABBREVIATIONS:

  • Yellow Highlighting – commonly used at the time
  • Green Highlighting – gene targeted by targeted therapies
  • Red Highlighting – drug-resistant cancer that therapy is used for
  • Blue Highlighting – cancer type genetic markers
  • “Dox” – doxorubicin
  • “CyP” – cyclophosphamide
  • “5FU” – 5-fluorouracil
  • “MTX” – methotrexate
  • “PSA” – Prostate Specific Antigen
  • “EGFR” – Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • “Cisplat” – cisplatin
  • “vincris” – vincristine
  • “TSG” – Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • “MitC” – mitomycin C
  • “chlrmb” – Chlorambucil
  • “Bleo” – Bleomycin
  • “TMZ” – Temozolomide
  • “NHL” – Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma
  • “HL” – Hodgkins Lymphoma
  • “NSCLC” – Non-Small Cell Lung Canger
  • “SCLC” – Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • “CLL” – Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • “AML” – Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  • “APL” – Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

 

REFERENCES:

  • Weinberg, R.A. The Biology of Cancer (2nd ed.), 2014, Garland Science.
  • DeVita, V.T.; DeVita-Raeburn, E. The Death of Cancer (2nd ed.), 2015, Sarah Crichton Books.
  • Cancer Progress.Net Progress and Timeline
  • Breast Cancer:
    1. Love, R.R.; et al. Oophorectomy for Breast Cancer: History Revisted J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2002, 94, 1433.
    2. Handley, R.S; et al. Conservative Radical Mastectomy (Patey’s Operation), Annals of Surgery, 1969, 170, 880.
    3. Dunphy, J.E.; et al. Modified Radical Mastectomy, Second National Conference on Breast Cancer, 1971, 28, 1624.
    4. Cole, M.P.; et al. A PRELIMINARY TRIAL OF DOXORUBICIN IN ADVANCED BREAST CANCER AND OTHER MALIGNANT DISEASE, Br. J. Cancer, 1974, 29, 114.
    5. Ingle, J.N.; et al. Randomized Clinical Trial of Diethylstilbesterol vs Tamoxifen in Postmenopausal Women with Advanced Breast Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 1981, 304, 16.
    6. Holmes, F.A.; et al. Phase II Trial of Taxol, an Active Drug in the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1991, 83, 1797.
    7. Hillner, B.E.; et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology Guideline on the Role of Bisphosphonates in Breast Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 2000, 18, 1378.
    8. Wooster, R.; et al. Identification of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2, Nature, 1995, 378, 789.
    9. Blum, J.L.; et al. Multicenter Phase II Study of Capecitabine in Paclitaxel-Refractory Metastatic Breast Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 1999, 17, 485.
    10. Slamon, D.J.; et al. USE OF CHEMOTHERAPY PLUS A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST HER2 FOR METASTATIC BREAST CANCER THAT OVEREXPRESSES HER2, N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, 344, 783.
    11. Perou, C.M.; et al. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours, Nature, 2000, 406, 747.
    12. Henderson, I.C.; et al. Improved Outcomes From Adding Sequential Paclitaxel but Not From Escalating Doxorubicin Dose in an Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimen for Patients With Node-Positive Primary Breast Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 2003, 21, 976.
    13. Mouridsen, H.; et al. Superior Efficacy of Letrozole Versus Tamoxifen as First-Line Therapy for Postmenopausal Women With Advanced Breast Cancer: Results of a Phase III Study of the International Letrozole Breast Cancer Group, J. Clin. Oncol., 2001, 19, 2596.
    14. Martin, M.; et al. Adjuvant Docetaxel for Node-Positive Breast Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2005, 352, 2302.
    15. Geyer, C.E.; et al. Lapatinib plus Capecitabine for HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2006, 355, 2733.
    16. Miller, K.; et al. Paclitaxel plus Bevacizumab versus Paclitaxel Alone for Metastatic Breast Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2007, 357, 2666.
    17. Thomas, E.S.; et al. Ixabepilone Plus Capecitabine for Metastatic Breast Cancer Progressing After Anthracycline and Taxane Treatment, J. Clin. Oncol., 2007, 25, 5210.
    18. Johnston, S.; et al. Lapatinib Combined With Letrozole Versus Letrozole and Placebo As First-Line Therapy for Postmenopausal Hormone Receptor–Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 2009, 27, 5538.
    19. O’Shaughnessy, J.; et al. Iniparib plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2011, 364, 205.
    20. Cortes, J.; et al. Eribulin monotherapy versus treatment of physician’s choice in patients with metastatic breast cancer (EMBRACE): a phase 3 open-label randomised study, Lancett, 2011, 377, 914.
    21. Verma, S.; et al. Trastuzumab Emtansine for HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2012, 367, 1783.
  • Prostate Cancer:
    1. Scott, W.W. Historical Overview of the Treatment of Prostatic Cancer, The Prostate, 1983, 4, 435.

    2. Huggins, C. Endocrine-induced regression of cancers, Nobel Lecture, 1966.
    3. Fuks, Z.; et al. THE EFFECT OF LOCAL CONTROL ON METASTATIC DISSEMINATION IN CARCINOMA OF THE PROSTATE: LONG-TERM RESULTS IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH 125I IMPLANTATION, Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys., 1991, 21, 537.
    4. Gleason, D.F.; et al. PREDICTION OF PROGNOSIS FOR PROSTATIC ADENOCARCINOMA BY COMBINED HISTOLOGICAL GRADING AND CLINICAL STAGING, J. Urology, 1974, 111, 58.
    5. Tolis, G.; et al. Tumor growth inhibition in patients with prostatic carcinoma treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists, PNAS, 1982, 79, 1658.
    6. Sant’Agnese, P.A. Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Carcinoma of the Prostate, American Cancer Society/American Urological Association International Workshop on Prostatic Cancer and Hyperplasia,, 1991, 254.
    7. Tannock, I.F.; et al. Chemotherapy With Mitoxantrone Plus Prednisone or Prednisone Alone for Symptomatic Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Canadian Randomized Trial With Palliative End Points, J. Clin. Oncol., 1996, 14, 1756.
    8. Tannock, I.F.; et al. Docetaxel plus Prednisone or Mitoxantrone plus Prednisone for Advanced Prostate Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2004, 351, 1502.
    9. Kim, S.; et al. Integration Site Preference of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus, a New Human Retrovirus Associated with Prostate Cancer, J. Virology, 2008, 82, 9964.
    10. de Bono, J.S.; et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial, Lancett, 2010, 376, 1147.
    11. de Bono, J.S.; et al. Abiraterone and Increased Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2011, 364, 1995.
    12. Scher, H.I.; et al. Increased Survival with Enzalutamide in Prostate Cancer after Chemotherapy, N. Engl. J. Med., 2012, 367, 1187.
  • Lung Cancer:
    1. Roswit, B. Present Status of Chemotherapy of Bronchial Cancer, Symposium on the Treatment of Bronchial Cancer, at the Forty-second Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, 1956, 499.

    2. Roswit, B.; et al. The Survival of Patients with Inoperable Lung Cancer: A Large-Scale Randomized Study of Radiation Therapy Versus Placebo, RADIOLOGY, 1968, 90, 688.
    3. Veale, D.; et al. Epidermal growth factor receptors in non-small cell lung cancer, Br. J. Cancer, 1987, 55, 513.
    4. Dillman, R.; et al. A Randomized Trial of Induction Chemotherapy Plus High-dose Radiation versus Radiation Alone in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 1990, 323, 940.
    5. Murray, N.; et al. Importance of Timing for Thoracic Irradiation in the Combined Modality Treatment of Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 1993, 11, 336.
    6. von Pawel, J.; et al. Topotecan Versus Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, and Vincristine for the Treatment of Recurrent Small-Cell Lung Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 1999, 17, 658.
    7. Schiller, J.H.; et al. COMPARISON OF FOUR CHEMOTHERAPY REGIMENS FOR ADVANCED NON–SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER, N. Engl. J. Med., 2002, 346, 92.
    8. Thatcher, N.; et al. Gefitinib plus best supportive care in previously treated patients with refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (Iressa Survival Evaluation in Lung Cancer), Lancett, 2005, 366, 1527.
    9. Shepherd, F.A.; et al. Erlotinib in Previously Treated Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2005, 353, 123.
    10. Mok, T.S.; et al. Gefitinib or Carboplatin–Paclitaxel in Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma, N. Engl. J. Med., 2009, 361, 947.
    11. Johnson, D.H.; et al. Randomized Phase II Trial Comparing Bevacizumab Plus Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Alone in Previously Untreated Locally Advanced or Metastatic Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 2004, 22, 2184.
    12. Maemondo, M.; et al. Gefitinib or Chemotherapy for Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Mutated EGFR, N. Engl. J. Med., 2010, 362, 2380.
    13. Kwak, E.L.; et al. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibition in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2010, 363, 1693.
  • Colorectal Cancer:
    1. Magill, W.S. RESECTION OF THE ILEO-CAECAL COIL OF THE INTESTINE; ITS INDICATIONS, RESULTS, AND – MODUS OPERANDI, WITH A REVIEW OF ONE HUNDRED AND TWO REPORTED CASES AND TWO HERETOFORE UNPUBLISHED., Annals of Surgery, 1880, 20, 642.

    2. Hume, G.H. A Case of Gastro-Enterostomy, Br. J. Med., 1893, 842.
    3. Seifert, P.; et al. COMPARISON OF CONTINUOUSLY INFUSED 5-FLUROURACIL WITH BOLUS INJECTION IN TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL ADENOCARCINOMA, Cancer, 1975, 36, 123.
    4. Hurley J.D.; et al. Chemotherapy of Solid Cancer Arising from the Gastro-intestinal Tract, Annals of Surgery, 1960, 152, 568.
    5. Heald, R.J.; et al. The mesorectum in rectal cancer surgery-the clue to pelvic recurrence?, Br. J. Surg., 1982, 69, 613.
    6. Buess, G.; et al. Technique and Results of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery in Early Rectal Cancer, Am. J. Surg., 1992, 163, 63.
    7. Adjucant Therapy for Patients with Colon and Rectal Cancer, NIH Concensus Development Conference Statement, 1990.
    8. Saltz, L.B.; et al. IRINOTECAN PLUS FLUOROURACIL AND LEUCOVORIN FOR METASTATIC COLORECTAL CANCER, N. Engl. J. Med., 2000, 343, 905.
    9. Twelves, C.; et al. Capecitabine as Adjuvant Treatment for Stage III Colon Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2005, 352, 696.
    10. Hurwitz, H.; et al. Bevacizumab plus Irinotecan, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2004, 350, 2335.
    11. The Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Therapy Study Group A Comparison of Laparoscopically Assisted and Open Colectomy for Colon Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2004, 350, 2050.
    12. Andre, T.; et al. Improved Overall Survival With Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin As Adjuvant Treatment in Stage II or III Colon Cancer in the MOSAIC Trial, J. Clin. Oncol., 2009, 27, 3109.
    13. Karapetis, C.S.; et al. K-ras Mutations and Benefit from Cetuximab in Advanced Colorectal Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2008, 359, 1757.
    14. Lanza, G.; et al. Immunohistochemical Test for MLH1 and MSH2 Expression Predicts Clinical Outcome in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients, J. Clin. Oncol., 2006, 24, 2359.
    15. Watanabe, T.; et al. MOLECULAR PREDICTORS OF SURVIVAL AFTER ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY FOR COLON CANCER, N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, 344, 1196.
    16. Van Cutsem, E.; et al. Addition of Aflibercept to Fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and Irinotecan Improves Survival in a Phase III Randomized Trial in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Previously Treated With an Oxaliplatin-Based Regimen, J. Clin. Oncol., 2012, 30, 3499.
  • Melanoma:
    1. Rebeccam V.W.; et al. A Brief History of Melanoma: From Mummies to Mutations, Melanoma Res., 2012, 22, 114.

    2. Yang, A.V.; et al. The History and Future of Chemotherapy for Melanoma, Hematol. Oncol. Clin. N. Am., 2009, 23, 583.
    3. Rosenberg, S.A.; et al. Adoptive cell transfer: a clinical path to effective cancer immunotherapy, Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2008, 8, 299.
    4. Hodi, F.S.; et al. Improved Survival with Ipilimumab in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma, N. Engl. J. Med., 2010, 363, 711.
    5. Robert, C.; et al. Ipilimumab plus Dacarbazine for Previously Untreated Metastatic Melanoma, N. Engl. J. Med., 2011, 364, 2517.
    6. Flaherty, K.T.; et al. Inhibition of Mutated, Activated BRAF in Metastatic Melanoma, N. Engl. J. Med., 2010, 363, 809.
    7. Chapman, P.B.; et al. Improved Survival with Vemurafenib in Melanoma with BRAF V600E Mutation, N. Engl. J. Med., 2011, 364, 2507.
  • Bladder Cancer:
    1. Papanicolaou, G.N.; et al. URINE SEDIMENT SMEARS AS A DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE IN CANCERS OF THE URINARY TRACT, Science, 1945, 101, 519.

    2. Paquin, A.J.; et al. A TECHNIQUE FOR RADICAL TOTAL CYSTECTOMY, Cancer, 1956, 9, 585.
    3. Lamm, J.E.; et al. A Randomized Trial of Intravesical Doxorubicin, and Immunotherapy with Bacille Calmette-Guerin for Transitional-Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder, N. Engl. J. Med., 1991, 325, 1205.
    4. Einhorn, L.H.; et al. The Role of Cis-Platin in Solid Tumor Therapy, N. Engl. J. Med., 1979, 300, 289.
    5. Sternberg, C.N.; et al. Everything Old Is New Again! Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 2014, 32, 1868.
    6. James, N.D.; et al. Radiotherapy with or without Chemotherapy
      in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2012, 366, 1477.

    7. von der Maase, H.; et al. Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Versus Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin in Advanced or Metastatic Bladder Cancer: Results of a Large, Randomized, Multinational, Multicenter, Phase III Study, J. Clin. Oncol., 2000, 17, 3068.
  • Kidney Cancer:
    1. Zuckerman, I.C.; et al. LEIOMYOMA OF THE KIDNEY, Annals of Surgery, 1947, 126, 220.

    2. Chute, R.; et al. The Value of the Thoracoabdominal Incision in the Removal of Kidney Tumors, N. Engl. J. Med., 1949, 241, 951.
    3. Talley, R.W.; et al. CHEMOTHERAPY OF ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE KIDNEY, Cancer, 1973, 1062.
    4. Hrushesky, W.J.; et al. Current Status of the Therapy of Advanced Renal Carcinoma, J. Surg. Onco., 1977, 9, 277.
    5. Rosenberg, S.A.; et al. Observations on the Systematic Adminitration of Autologous Lymphokine-Activated Killer Cells and Recombinant Interleukin-2 To Patients with Metastatic Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 1985, 313, 1485.
    6. Uchida, M.; et al. Percutaneous cryosurgery for renal tumours, Br. J. Urol., 1995, 75, 132.
    7. Flanigan, R.C.; et al. NEPHRECTOMY FOLLOWED BY INTERFERON ALFA-2b COMPARED WITH INTERFERON ALFA-2b ALONE FOR METASTATIC RENAL-CELL CANCER, N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, 345, 1655.
    8. Escudier, B.; et al. Sorafenib in Advanced Clear-Cell Renal-Cell Carcinoma, N. Engl. J. Med., 2007, 356, 125.
    9. Motzer, R.J.; et al. Sunitinib versus Interferon Alfa in Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma, N. Engl. J. Med., 2007, 356, 115.
    10. Hudes, G.; et al. Temsirolimus, Interferon Alfa,
      or Both for Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma, N. Engl. J. Med., 2007, 356, 2271.

    11. Rini, B.I.; et al. Phase III Trial of Bevacizumab Plus Interferon Alfa Versus Interferon Alfa Monotherapy in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Final Results of CALGB 90206, J. Clin. Oncol., 2010, 28, 2137.
    12. Sternberg, C.N.; et al. Pazopanib in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Renal Cell
      Carcinoma: Results of a Randomized Phase III Trial, J. Clin. Oncol., 2010, 28, 1061.
  • Pancreatic Cancer:
    1. Senn, N. The Surgical Treatment of Cysts of the Pancreas, JAMA, 1885, 5, 365.

    2. Collins, J.J.; et al. Rationale for Total Pancreatectomy for Carcinoma of the Pancreatic Heard, N. Engl. J. Med., 1966, 274, 599.
    3. Moertel, C.G. Chemotherapy of Gastrointestinal Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 1978, 299, 1049.
    4. Grace, P.A.; et al. Pylorus perserving pancreatoduodenectomy: an overview, Br. J. Surg., 1990, 77, 968.
    5. Moertel, C.G.; et al. Therapy of Locally Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma: A Randomized Comparison of High Dose (6000 Rads)Radiation Alone, Moderate Dose Radiation (4000 Rads + 5-Fluorouracil), and High Dose Radiation + 5-Fluorouracil, Cancer, 1981, 48, 1705.
    6. Kalser, M.H.; et al. Adjuvant Combined Radiation and Chemotherapy Following Curative Resection, Arch. Surg. , 1985, 120, 899.
    7. Burris III, H.A.; et al. Improvements in Survival and Clinical Benefit With Gemcitabine as First-Line Therapy for Patients WithAdvanced Pancreas Cancer: A Randomized Trial, J. Clin. Oncol., 1997, 15, 2403.
    8. Moore, M.J.; et al. Erlotinib Plus Gemcitabine Compared With Gemcitabine Alone in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Phase III Trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, J. Clin. Oncol., 2007, 25, 1960.
    9. Conroy, T.; et al. FOLFIRINOX versus Gemcitabine for Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2011, 364, 1817.
    10. Von Hoff, D.D.; et al. Increased Survival in Pancreatic Cancer with nab-Paclitaxel plus Gemcitabine, N. Engl. J. Med., 2013, 369, 1691.
  • Liver Cancer:
    1. Tait, L. On The Surgical Treatment Of Diseases Of The Liver, Br. Med. J., 1886, 2, 905.

    2. Thompson, J.E. The Surgical Treatment of Neoplasms of the Liver, Annals of Surgery, 1899, , 284.
    3. Starzl, T.E.; et al. HOMOTRANSPLANTATION OF THE LIVER IN HUMANS, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 1963, 117, 659.
    4. Ariel, I.M. Treatment of Inoperable Primary Pancreatic and Liver Cancer by the Intra-Arterial Administration of Radioactive Isotopes ( Y” Radiating Microspheres), Annals of Surgery, 1965, 162, 267.
    5. Olweny, C.L.M.; et al. TREATMENT OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA WITH ADRIAMYCIN, Cancer, 1975, 36, 1250.
    6. Chang, M.H; et al. Decreased Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hepatitis B Vaccinees: A 20-Year Follow-up Study, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2009, 101, 1348.
    7. Lo, C.; et al. Randomized Controlled Trial of Transarterial Lipiodol Chemoembolization for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hepatology, 2002, 35, 1164.
    8. Calle, E.E.; et al. Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality from Cancer in a Prospectively Studied Cohort of U.S. Adults, N. Engl. J. Med., 2003, 348, 1625.
    9. Llovet, J.M.; et al. Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma, N. Engl. J. Med., 2008, 359, 378.
  • Ovarian Cancer:
    1. Bagley, C.M.; et al. Treatment of Ovarian Carcinoma: Possibilities for Progress, N. Engl. J. Med., 1972, 287, 856.

    2. Young, R.C.; et al. Advanced Ovarian Adenocarcinoma: A Prospective Clinical Trial of Melphalan (L-PAM) versus Combination Chemotherapy, N. Engl. J. Med., 1978, 299, 1261.
    3. Einhorn, L.H.; et al. The Role of Cis-Platin in Solid-Tumor Therapy, N. Engl. J. Med., 1979, 300, 289.
    4. Weiss, N.S.; et al. INCIDENCE OF OVARIAN CANCER IN RELATION TO THE USE OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES, Int. J. Cancer, 1981, 28, 669.
    5. Mangioni, C.; et al. Randomized Trial in Advanced Ovarian Cancer Comparing Cisplatin and Carboplatin, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1989, 81, 1464.
    6. Huinink, W.B.; et al. Topotecan Versus Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 1997, 15, 2183.
    7. Gordon, A.N.; et al. Phase II Study of Liposomal Doxorubicin in Platinum- and Paclitaxel-Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 2000, 18, 3093.
    8. Garcia, A.A.; et al. Phase II Clinical Trial of Bevacizumab and Low-Dose Metronomic Oral Cyclophosphamide in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: A Trial of the California, Chicago, and Princess Margaret Hospital Phase II Consortia, J. Clin. Oncol., 2008, 26, 76.
  • Cervical Cancer:
    1. Morton, D.G. Cervical Cancer: An Autopsy study of Women Dying with Cervical Cancer after Radiation, Cal. West Med., 1935, 42, 345.

    2. Malcolm, J.D. WERTHEIM’S OPERATION FOR CANCER OF THE CERVIX UTERI, Br. Med. J., 1912, 1350.
    3. Meigs, J.V.; et al. THE EFFECT OF RADIUM ON CANCER OF THE CERVIX, N. Engl. J. Med., 1930, 203, 247.
    4. Durst, M.; et al. A papillomavirus, DNA- from a cervical carcinoma and-its – prevalence in cancer biopsy samples from different geographic regions, PNAS, 1983, 80, 3812.
    5. Whitney, C.W.; et al. Randomized Comparison of Fluorouracil Plus Cisplatin Versus Hydroxyurea as an Adjunct to Radiation Therapy in Stage IIB-IVA Carcinoma of the Cervix With Negative Para-Aortic Lymph Nodes: A Gynecologic Oncology Group and Southwest Oncology Group Study, J. Clin. Oncol., 1999, 17, 1339.
    6. Magrina, J.F.; et al. Robotic radical hysterectomy: Comparison with laparoscopy and laparotomy, Gyn. Onco., 2008, 109, 86.
  • Testicular Cancer:
    1. Earle, H. On Chimney Sweeps’ Cancer, Med Chr Trans, 1823, 12, 296.

    2. Li, M.C.; et al. Effects of Combined Drug Therapy on Metastatic Cancer of the Testis, JAMA, 1960, 174, 1291.
    3. Einhorn, L.H. Testicular Cancer as a Model for a Curable Neoplasm, Cancer Res, 1981, 41, 3275.
    4. Einhorn, L.H.; et al. Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum, Vinblastine, and Bleomycin Combination Chemotherapy in Disseminated Testicular Cancer, J. Urol., 2002, 168, 2368.
    5. Williams, S.D.; et al. Treatment of Disseminated Germ-Cell Tumors with Cisplatin, Bleomycin and either Vinblastine or Etoposide, N. Engl. J. Med., 1987, 316, 435.
  • Head & Neck Cancer:
    1. Capizzi, R.L.; et al. Methotrexate Therapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Improvement in Therapeutic Index by the Use of Leucovorin Rescue, Cancer Re., 1970, 30, 1782.

    2. Rooney, M.; et al. Improved Complete Response Rate and Survival in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer After Three-Course Induction Therapy With 7 20-Hour 5-FU Infusion and Cisplatin, Cancer, 1985, 55, 1123.
    3. Adelstein, D.J.; et al. Simultaneous Versus Sequential Combined Technique Therapy for Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer, Cancer, 1990, 65, 1685.
    4. Wolf, G.T.; et al. Induction Chemotherapy plus radiation compared with surgery plus radiation in patients with advanced Larygeal Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 1991, 324, 1685.
    5. Nam, J.; et al. Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol, and Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study Among U.S. Whites, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1992, 84, 619.
    6. Bonner, J.A.; et al. Radiotherapy plus Cetuximab for Squamous-Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, N. Engl. J. Med., 2006, 354, 567.
    7. Posner, M.R.; et al. Cisplatin and Fluorouracil Alone or with Docetaxel in Head and Neck Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2007, 357, 1705.
    8. D’Souza, G.; et al. Case–Control Study of Human Papillomavirus and Oropharyngeal Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2007, 356, 1944.
    9. Vermorken, J.B.; et al. Platinum-Based Chemotherapy plus Cetuximab in Head and Neck Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med., 2008, 359, 1116.
  • Stomach Cancer:
    1. Santoro, E. The history of gastric cancer: legends and chronicles, Gastric Cancer, 2005, 8, 71.

    2. MacDonald, J.S.; et al. 5-Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, and Mitomycin (FAM) Combination Chemotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, Annals Inter. Med., 1980, 93, 533.
    3. La Vecchia, C.; et al. Family History and the Risk of Stomach and Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, 1992, 70, 50.
    4. Gouzi, J.L.; et al. Total Versus Subtotal Gastrectomy for Adenocarcinoma of the Gastric Antrum, Ann. Surg., , 209, 162.
    5. Parsonnet, J.; et al. Helicobacter Pylori Infection and The Risk of Gastric Carcinoma, N. Engl. J. Med, 1991, 325, 1127.
    6. Webb, A.; et al. Randomized Trial Comparing Epirubicin, Cisplatin, and Fluorouracil Versus Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, and Methotrexate in Advanced Esophagogastric Cancer, J. Clin. Oncol., 1997, 15, 261.
    7. MacDonald, J.S.; et al. CHEMORADIOTHERAPY AFTER SURGERY COMPARED WITH SURGERY ALONE FOR ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE STOMACH OR GASTROESOPHAGEAL JUNCTION, N. Engl. J. Med, 2001, 345, 725.
    8. Bonenkamp, J.J.; et al. EXTENDED LYMPH-NODE DISSECTION FOR GASTRIC CANCER, N. Engl. J. Med, 1999, 340, 908.
    9. Huntsman, D.G.; et al. EARLY GASTRIC CANCER IN YOUNG, ASYMPTOMATIC CARRIERS OF GERM-LINE E-CADHERIN MUTATIONS, N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, 344, 1904.
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